Difference between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer

Difference Between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer

In this article from Linquip, we want to talk about the difference between power transformer and distribution transformer. There are multiple factors and parameters that make these two transformers different from one another. These factors include the installation location, the network type, the voltage, etc. First, we will explain what power transformers and distribution transformers are, and then, we will explain the difference between these two machines. Are you eager to know? Then keep on reading our article.

Before we get into explaining the difference between power transformer and distribution transformer, let’s quickly review what these two machines are and their application to get a better understanding of their difference and then compare these two.

What is Power Transformer?

The first thing you should know before getting into this article about the difference between power transformer and distribution transformer is the definition of power transformers. A power transformer is a machine, just like any other transformer, that is considered to be a static electrical machine. This transformer type is installed at different power stations for power generation as well as transmission of power. Power transformer doubles as a step-down transformer or a step-up transformer. They are used to increase or decrease the voltage level when necessary. Plus, they can also be used between two power stations as an interconnection. Power transformers are able to transform power from one circuit to another. This process can be done without changing the frequency. Power transformers are static because they have no moving parts. They usually work on an AC supply and use the principles of mutual induction.

power transformer

What is a Distribution Transformer?

Another item you should know before trying to find the difference between power transformer and distribution transformer is the distribution transformer itself. A distribution transformer is a machine used for transforming the level of voltage to the end-line (or final) value to the end consumers in a way that is ready for immediate usage by the end consumers. E core kernels are among the most common core configuration for distribution transformers. Although there exist other types and variants, this one is among the most conventional and popular ones.

distribution transformer

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The Difference between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer

There are different parameters such as type of network, the maximum rating of usage, availability of ratings, application, size, etc. that separates power transformers and distribution transformers from each other. Now that you know a bit more about distribution transformers and power transformers, it is time to begin comparing these two machines. Below, we will name each parameter and then explain how they differ in distribution transformers and power transformers. So, keep on reading.

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  • Type of Network
    The first item we want to explain is about the difference between power transformer and distribution transformer is the type of network that is suitable for them. Power transformers are used in transmission networks of higher voltages. Distribution transformers, on the other hand, are used in the distribution network for lower voltages. This is exactly the opposite of power transformers.
  • Size
    The next item on this list is the size of these two machines. Distribution transformers are smaller in size compared to power transformers.
  • Designed Efficiency
    Another difference between power transformer and distribution transformer is in their designed efficiency. Power transformers are designed for maximum efficiency of 100%. This is while the distribution transformer has been designed for 50 to 70% efficiency.
  • Availability of Ratings
    The availability of ratings for power transformers is 400kV, 200kV, 110kV, 66kV, and 33kV. The availability of ratings for distribution transformers is 11kV, 6.6kV, 3.3kV, 440V, and 230V.
  • Efficiency Formula
    The formula for the power transformer efficiency is the ratio of output to the input power. The efficiency for the distribution transformer is measure by calculating the ratio of output in kilowatt-hour (or watt-hour) to the input in kilowatt-hour or watt-hour of a transformer. This measurement should be done over 24 hours.
  • Application
    Another difference between power transformer and distribution transformer is in their application. Distribution transformers are used for domestic as well as industrial purposes. On the other hand, power transformers are used in generating stations and transmission substations.
  • Maximum Rating of Usage
    Distribution transformers are utilized for rating less than 200MVA. This is while power transformers are used for ratings above 200 MVA.
  • Operating Condition
    The operating conditions of power transformers and distribution transformers are different too. Power transformers always function at full load. But distribution transformers function at less than full load.
  • Flux Density
    When it comes to distribution transformers vs. power transformers, you should know that the flux density of the power transformers is higher than the flux density of the distribution transformers.
  • Load Fluctuation
    Load fluctuations in the distribution transformers are very high. On the contrary, load fluctuation in the power transformers is less.
  • Usage
    Another difference between power transformer and distribution transformer is in their usage. Distribution transformers are used as an end-user connectivity while power transformers are used to step up and step down voltages.
  • Design of the Core
    The last difference between power transformer and distribution transformer is the design of the core. Power transformers’ core has been designed to operate at maximum efficiency. And they operate near the B-H curve’s saturation point. This enables bringing down the mass of the core.

Now you know all there is to know about the difference between power transformer and distribution transformer. What do you think about these two machines? Comment below and share your thoughts and experiences with us! And if you have any questions about these two, signup on Linquip and our experts will get in touch with you right away! You can easily ask our experts for help or browse through our articles to find all the answers you need.

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